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Research Activities under SSA

Fundamentally, Research in Elementary Education under SSA defines qualitatively a set of processes and outcomes that pave way for achievement of goals of SSA. Enhancing teacher effective ness through Action Research is of great importance in bringing about qualitative improvement in teaching learning process. The findings of district –specific studies help the administrators to make informed decisions on matters related to quality, equity and relevance of education. Educational Research is multi-disciplinary and therefore learned professors from universities and research institutions have been entrusted with stuies in every component of SSA.

The State Research Council, District Research Councils and Block Research Councils have been formed with committed professors, senior officials and   teachers to foster research skills among teachers and other functionaries of the project and to identify talented teachers and supervisory personnel so as to encourage them in research and evaluation. The State Research Advisory Committee has been formed consisting of eminent professionals in the area of education. The functions of State Research Advisory Committee are:    

1)  Planning the research agenda based on District specific issues

2)   Adopting a strategy for deciding the priority areas of   research.

3)       Scrutinising and approving research proposals.

4)       Monitoring the progress of the approved studies 

Of the Twenty-four studies that have been approved, 18 studies have been completed. 38,940 teachers have been given orientation training in Action Research. 11,908 Action Research studies have been completed in the year 2004-05 and 4120 studies have been completed in the year 2005-06. 

NCERT sponsored Baseline Achievement Survey at the end of Standard III has been conducted in 200 randomly selected schools in Chennai, Salem, Madurai and Kanyakumari Districts. The NCERT’s BAS survey at the end of Std V reveals that the pupils from TamilNadu have scored more than 75% in Language, Mathematics and Environmental Science. 

 

RESEARCH ABSTRACTS

      I

1.

Title of the Study

:

A study on the Social Integration of Children with mild and moderate disabilities in Mainstream Classrooms under Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, Tamilnadu.

 

2.

Name of Principal Investigator

:

Dr. R. Seetharam, Reader,

 

3.

Name of the Organization

:

Department of Education,

University of Madras.

 

4.

Year of completion

:

December 2005

 5.     Objectives of the study : 

Ø       To find out the peer group affiliation of mainstream school students towards their disabled classmates.

Ø       To find out the differences in peer behavioral assessment between disabled students who are accepted and isolated by their classmates.

Ø       To explore the perception of the class teacher on the academic and social behavior of the disabled students.

Ø       To make an estimation of various aids and facilities that are made available to the disabled students and to find out the extent to which the facilities are being utilized.

6.     Methodology

Ø       Demographic data sheet

Ø  Peer Group affiliation scale adopted from the measurement of sociometric status & structure developed by Bronfenbrenner 1945.

Ø       Peer behavioral assessment  scale modified version of Coie.et.al 1982.

Ø       Teacher rating scale of the disabled student’s behavior profile. 

7.     Major Findings: 

Ø       The disabled students at the primary level have scored more in peer group affiliation and academic performance than the disabled students at middle school level.

Ø       Psycho-physical developmental stages are significantly related to peer group affiliation and academic performance.   Pre-adolescents have performed better than adolescents.

Ø       Family, annual income, social community status and categories of disability have significant effect on the peer group affiliation; peer assessed behavioral characteristics and academic performance.

Ø       Socio-metric status of the disabled students has significant effect on academic performance and all the components of peer behavioral assessment. 

8.         Strategies based on findings: 

Ø       Interventions on self-concept and self-esteem building to be implemented right from pre-adolescence level.

Ø       Individualized structured, consistent and contextual interventions for social integration.

Ø       Co-operative learning procedures, modeling of appropriate social behavior play group and leisure activity arrangements.

Ø       Involving parents and NGOs in bring forward disabled achievers as models for the disabled.

 9 & 10.  The report has not been published yet and copy of the same can be obtained from SSA,  T.N. 

II  

1.

Title of the study

:

The Role of NGOs in capacity building and educational development

 

2.

Name of Principal Investigator

:

J. Krishnamurthy

 

3.

Name of the organization

:

Annamalai University – Annamalai Nagar

 

4.

year of Completion

:

June  2005 

5.         Objectives of the Study 

Ø       To study the views of NGOs in achieving the goals of SSA programme in the Cuddalore District.

Ø       To suggest suitable recommendations to enhance the role of NGOs in achieving the goals of SSA.

6.         Geographical Coverage                              :        Cuddalore

 7.         Methodology 

Ø       Preparation of tools of data collection (Interview schedules) for schools, NGOs and Public.

Ø       Collection of data through a comprehensive survey using interview schedules.

8.         Major Findings: 

Ø       To achieve the goal of universalization of Elementary Education, several NGOs were involved by district project coordinator to mainstream the out of school children.

Ø       The drop out rate is higher for boys and lower for girls.

Ø       The NGOs could reach the public in creating awareness with awareness with regard to UEE with certain limitations. 

9.         Strategies based on findings: 

Ø       Creation of job opportunities in the village itself to overcome the migration problem.

Ø       Extending scholarships / financial assistance to the differently abler children on time will help them to continue their education with ease.

Ø       NGOs should launch increasingly sophisticated campaigns to promote universalization of elementary education.

10.  The report has not been published yet and copy of the same can be obtained from SSA, T.N. 

 III 

1.

Title of the study

:

Identification of Learning difficulties in Environmental Science at elementary level in Madurai District and suggestions to overcome.

 

2.

Broad field of study

:

Identification of learning difficulties in Environmental Science at Elementary Level in Madurai District and preceptors, Madurai.

 

3.

Name of Principal Investigator

:

Dr. L. Saraswathi – Reader in Education,

 

4.

Scope and Geographical  coverage

:

Madurai District

  

5.

Name of the Organization

:

Thiagarajar College of  Preceptors, Madurai

 

6.

Year of Completion

:

December  2005

 7.                Objectives of the Study 

Ø             Development of scientific attitudes, raising scientific and technological competence, encouraging, creativity and solving problems related to daily lives are the main objectives. 

8.                Methodology 

Ø       Population, sample and sampling technique, inventory, Teaching aids tools, Half yearly Examination answer papers from class 3 to class 8, Interview. 

9.         Major findings: 

Ø       Less number of difficulties with science graduates and graduates in class 6 Chemistry

Ø       More areas of  difficulties were observed in class 7

Ø       SSA training programme for teachers can be planned involving all teachers simultaneously so that the students and teacher will not suffer, when few teachers go for training and the remaining teachers manage the school. 

10.

Strategies based on findings  :

Awareness can be developed – Software related to Science, encyclopedia, embedded assessment, E-learning etc.

11.  The report has not been published yet and copy of the same can be obtained from SSA, T.N. 

IV 

1.

Title of the Study

:

Evaluation of Block Resource Centres (BRCs) functioning in Cuddalore and Villupuram districts of Tamilnadu

2.

Broad field of study

:

Evaluation of Block Resource Centres (BRCs) functioning in Cuddalore and Villupuram Districts of Tamilnadu

3.

Name of Principal investigator

:

Dr. G. Viswanathan, Professor of Education

4.

Name of the Organization

:

Annamalai  University

 

5.

Year of Completion

:

December 2005

6.         Objective of the Study 

Ø       To find out the level of teachers perception about various dimensions of B.R.C.’s functions.

Ø       To find out the level of Academic achievement of III rd  std students

Ø       To find out if there is any significant difference in the scores of achievement of  III students among   a) Boys and Girls    b)   Rural and Urban School Students                            c)   Students of different communities.

7.         Scope and Geographical Coverage:

Ø       Evaluation of Block Resource Centers 

Geographical Coverage                     :              Cuddalore and Villupuram

                                                                         Districts of Tamilnadu

8.         Methodology  :   Tools

Ø       A questionnaire an opinionnaire consists of 15 statements

Ø       An interview schedule consists of 13 statements

Ø       An achievement test to find out the III std students achievement level. 5

9.         Major Findings  : 

The BRCs functioning in Cuddalroe and Villupuram Districts are highly appreciable. 

Ø       Urban and Rural teachers perception is high and equal

Ø       Male and female teachers do not significantly differ in their perception

Ø       Teacher of different age groups do not significantly differ in their perception.

10.        Strategies based on findings: 

Ø       All the BRCs may extend the training facilities to the VEC members and the public. 

Ø       For effective preparation of TLN, a group of specially trained teachers in art, drawing may be appointed on part time basis. 

11.  The report has not been published yet and copy of the same can be obtained from SSA, T.N. 

1.

Title  of  Study

:

Remedial Programmers for children with Learning difficulties

 

2.

Name of the Principal Investigator

:

Dr. P. Santhanam,

 

 3.

 Name of the Organization

:

 SDS Institute of Behavioural Sciences,  Chennai.

 

4.

Year of Completion

:

2005

 

5.

Geographical Coverage

:

Thiruvallore,  Villupuram and Kanchipuram Districts.

 

  6.         Objectives of the Study

Ø       To measure the level of intellectual development of the children with learning difficulties.

Ø     To provide psycho-educational intervention programmes to the children with learning difficulties to enhance their academic performance.

Ø       To conduct training programmes to the teachers and parents regarding learning difficulties to help the children, to improve their academic performance.

7.         Methodology                            :           test  -  formal  assessment

Ø       General Intelligence and aptitude tests

Ø       General achievement test

Ø       Personality test 

8.         Major findings: 

Ø       The intellectual capacity of the children with learning ability is significantly higher them those with learning disability. 

Ø       Children with learning disability shower better academic performance after remedial programme.

9.         Strategies based on findings : 

Ø       Orientation programmes regarding learning disability may be arranged in collaboration with NGOs for the teachers.

Ø       Awareness and remedial programme about learning disability to be conducted through print and electronic media.

Ø       Periodically counseling programmes to be arranged for teachers and parents in this regard.

10.  The report has not been published yet and copy of the same can be obtained from SSA, T.N.  

VI

1.

Title of the SSA Project

:

“Socio Economic Analysis of School dropouts and Retention of Enrolments with reference to primary education in Cuddalore district in Tamilnadu

 

2.

Name of the Principal Investigator

:

Dr. I. Sundar, Lecturer in Economics,

 

3.

Name of the Organisation

:

Annamalai University.

4.

Year of Completion

:

2005

 

5.

Geographical Coverage

:

Cuddalore District

 

  6.         Objectives of the Study                                             :

Ø          To analyze the performance of district primary education programme in Cuddalore on the basis of time series data.

Ø          To analyze the socio-economic causes and reasons for school dropouts at the primary level education in cuddalore district.

Ø          To study the factors promoting schools enrolment in consequence of implementation of District Primary Education Programme from the point of view of parent respondent.

Ø          To suggest certain policy measures to enhance the school enrolment and to achieve the goal of education for all.

7.         Methodology   :

Ø          Sampling

Ø          Data Collection

Ø          Data Analysis 

8.         Major Findings :

Ø          Economic reasons in school drop out are quite common in some blocks – Nallur, Mangalore where S.C. population is predominant.

Ø          Reduction in girl students drops out due to effective implementation of SSA’s schemes for girl education.

Ø          Poor infrastructure facilities in some schools.

Ø          Need of more number of teachers to handle different classes.

Ø          Lack of coordination among village panchayats, parent-teacher association, NGOsand Education.

Ø          Poverty induced child labour practice, lack of flexible timings for working children.

Ø          There is a problem of reenrollment of school drop out. 

9.         Strategies based on findings    :

Ø          Alternative household income generation involving women self help groups in place of child labour practice.  Social welfare, labour and employment department to be apprised.

Ø          Proper coordination should be ensured by conducting joint meetings of members of village panchayats, parent teacher association, NGOs and officials of Education Department.

Ø          The Schools that need more infrastructures can be adopted by Lions Club, Rotary club for more financial inputs.

Ø          Teacher pupil ratio be adopted strictly.

Ø          Supplementary household income, part time job to children among poor households.  SHGs to organize craft training and exhibition of their products.

Ø          Effective implementation through awareness campaign of several incentives under SSA to be geared up.  Provision schools EGS and AIE centers under SSA to be expedited.

10. The report has not been published yet and copy of the same can be obtained from SSA, T.N.  

                                       VII 

1.

Title of the Study

:

A Study of the migratory parents in Chennai city on education of their Children”.

 

2.

Name of Principal Investigator

:

Y. Stanley Selvakumar,

 

3.

Name of the Organization

:

Department of Education, University of Madras, Chennai.

4.

Year of Completion

:

August  2005

5.

Geographical coverage

:

Chennai

6.         Objectives of the Study            : 

Ø          To understand the types of migrants in Chennai city.

Ø          To know the family occupation of the migrants.

Ø          To find out the factors those are related to their migration.

Ø          To investigate the awareness of the migrant parents with regard to government schemes for primary and upper primary education.

Ø          To find out the expectation of migrant parent with regard to facilitate for convincing the education of their children.

Ø          To suggest alternate methods for enabling the children of migrant parent to continue their primary and upper primary education.

 7.         Methodology    : 

Ø       Sampling technique, Interview schedule

8.         Major Findings :

 

Ø       95% of the respondents told that their children studies are affected due to migration.

Ø       82% of the respondents told the researcher that getting admission in the migrated area was difficult.

Ø       92% of the respondents told that they do not encourage the children to work and only few percent of the respondent told that the family income is not sufficient to educate their children.

Ø       90% of the respondents are not aware about government schemes for the welfare of the construction workers.

Ø       30% of the respondents told that they have migrated for high pay and the rest of the respondents migrated because there was no job in their native lands.

9.         Strategies based on findings   : 

Ø       Augmenting the mobile schools to cover the children of the migrant population.

Ø       Awareness programme through NGOs in their work places, parent counseling, prevention of child labour, vocational education in lucrative trades and community mobilization have been made by the investigator. 

  The findings are used for formulating strategies for follow up action to improve implementation.   They are useful in preparation of the Annual Work Plan and Budget.

10.  The report has not been published yet and copy of the same can be obtained from SSA, T.N. 

VIII

1.

Title of the Study

:

Enrolment and Retention of Girls in elementary Education in Tamilnadu

 

2.

Name of Principal Investigator

:

Dr. Malathi Duraisamy

 

3.

Name of the Organization

:

 

4.

Year of Completion

:

January 2006

 

5.

Geographical Coverage

:

Chennai, Perambalur

 

6.     Objective of the Study 

Ø       To assess the enrolment, dropout, retention of girls at primary and elementary level. 

Ø       To examine the economic and demographic factors that affect enrolment 

Ø       To examine children’s / parental aspirations regarding schooling and community’s perceptions on school education system.

7.       Methodology:

            The District profiles: 

Ø       Profile of Chennai, Profile of Perambalur

Ø       Primary survey of households.

Ø       Focus discussions and interviews with parents, school and village heads. 

8.         Major Findings: 

Ø       68 percent of Girls (5 – 15 years) in Chennai and 70 percent of girls (5 – 16) in Perambalur are currently enrolled. 

Ø       Mother’s education seems to matter over father’s education in enrollment of girl child, as observed from increasing enrollment as mother’s education increases. 

Ø       Percentage of drop-out higher in Chennai than in Perambalur and higher in the middle stage in both districts.   This is because of the concentration on slums. 

Ø       Parents and girls aspire for higher education but expressed the need for relevant education, employable skills and fluency in English. 

9.         Strategies Based on Findings: 

Ø       The present practice of recruitment of female teachers should be continued and increased to enable girls to attend middle and higher level of schooling.

Ø       Upgrading schools in rural areas and having more complete schools.

Ø       Encourage role of NGOs and other trusts enhance community participation so that resources can be generated to bring about improvement and some needed facilities like toilets, drinking water etc.

Create awareness, among parents and children on importance of girls schooling available incentives and benefits etc.

10.     Was the report published? Yes/no;           No.

11.     From whom can a copy of the report be obtained;    state project office, Tamil Nadu.

                                                   IX 

1.

Title of the Study

:

Organization culture at SSA State Project Set up, Tamil Nadu

2.

Broad field of the study

:

It was undertaken to verify if the employees also share this perception, namely, that the changes that has been made in the organization had truly led to improvement.  In addition, the study also captured employee attitudes towards various aspects of the organization.

 

3.

Name of the Principal investigator’s and Co-investigators (under living surnames)

:

Dr. G. Revathy

Loyala Institute of Business Administration Loyala College,

Chennai – 600 034.

4.

Year of  commencement

:

2007

5.

Year Completion

:

2008

6.

Objectives of Study

:

 

 

 

 

(a)   To obtain the employees’ (BRTES) Perceptions about various aspects of the organization culture

(b)     To assess various attitudes of the employees towards their job and towards the organization.

 

7.

Scope and geographical coverage (States (s) district’s blocks etc. could)

:

1177 BRTES of 30 districts of Tamil Nadu were quarried on organization improvements.

8.

Methodology

 

 

            (a)    Variables and Measurement 

Organization Characteristics such as freedom to work, communication, training given, individualized attitude, perceptions regarding the work and employee attitude towards the organization. 

            (b)        Instruments / Tools     :

A questionnaire was developed for the purpose of the study.  Part (i) demo graphic details of the record Part (ii) forty question capture employees’ response to various variable input.            

            (c)      Validity :  Content validity, face validity are both tested. 

·         Both academics and Senior Officer of the SSA helped as experts to establish content validity.  While a group consisting of two BRTEs from each of the thirty districts was used to help refine the instrument and establish its face validity. 

(d)        Sampling:     Purposive sampling technique was followed (muchinsky – 2000)

            Questionnaire here distributed to 1177 BRTEs across thirty districts of               Tamil Nadu.  They are administration personally by some of the BRTEs from the respective districts who had earlier been briefed on the questionnaire by the researched. 

(e)        Assessment of organization culture and employee attitude  : 

               Most of the statements in part (ii) of the questionnaire were analyzed using a simple percentage analysis as follows:

            Responses falling in either the “Strongly agree” or agree’ categories were considered on positive responses :  responses tally under  “neutral”  were considered neutral and responses falling under either “disagree” or “strongly disagree”   were considered on negative responses to the statement under consideration. 

(f)         Employee suggestion to improve the organization 

            The last item in the questionnaire was a question soliciting suggestions from the respondents to improve the organization still further, this was analysed using the method of constant  analysis as described by Cummings and worly (2007) 

9.         Major findings: RECOMMENDATIONS

Since the organization is perceived to be effective, and since most of the respondents have positive feelings about it, the management should take care to maintain the current way of working, and ensure that it does not regress to the old bureaucratic model.

It might however help to look into the reasons behind some of the employees experiencing stress as well as fear / insecurity. If the triggering factors for these feelings could be identified and dealt with, employee dissatisfaction, poor performance, absenteeism and even attrition, could be prevented. 

In addition, on the basis of some of the most-often repeated suggestions from the respondents, the following recommendations are made:  

Work should be planned well in advance, taking care that work assignments do not overlap with one another. Information regarding the work should reach in time. Sufficient time should be given for the completion of work. BRTEs also feel the need for more autonomy (freedom) to think and make decisions at work. This will prevent the BRTEs from feeling undue stress, and will also facilitate higher quality of work.

There should be a proper system in place for regular monitoring and review of the work of the BRTEs. 

Working hours should be clearly defined and restricted to school hours. Meetings should not be held after office hours, and Saturdays should be made holidays. BRTEs feel the need for holidays and vacations. Compensatory off (leave) can be provided for extra work put in.  

The BRTEs feel the need for increasing allowances such as TA, FTA, PTA etc. These reimbursements should be made immediately. 

The role of the supervisor is important. Supervisory vacancies should be filled immediately. Most BRTEs appreciate the necessity of this position. However they expect a lot from the incumbent – they feel he / she should be experienced, preferably a HM, and that he / she should provide appropriate guidance, support, and encouragement as well as appreciation for the work done. The supervisor should also be friendly and unbiased, particularly in the allotment of work. The perception that the supervisor is not very comfortable with / confident about new BRTEs needs to be changed. 

The focus on training should continue. More days should be allotted for training, and the schedules should be intimated in advance. Training should preferably be held during holidays / vacation. BRTEs feel the need for training on computer skills, as well as on other relevant areas such as personality development, time management and administration, in addition to work-related training. 

Most of the BRTEs don't seem to be comfortable with data collection. Either this responsibility can be taken away from them, or it can be reduced such that their academic duties are proportionately more. If they do have to collect data, they should be given sufficient time to do so. The appointment of clerical assistants / computer operators would help in data entry. 

There should be a mechanism for prompt redressal of grievances. BRTEs sometimes feel ill-treated by their supervisors, and even by the HMs. Sometimes they perceive unfairness or partiality in work allotment. They feel a need to be protected from their seniors (supervisors) who sometimes threaten them. 

The teacher-to-students ratio should be increased. More teachers should be appointed, and they should be given timely and appropriate (further ABL) training. Teachers should show interest and involvement, and cooperate with the BRTEs. BRTEs should be given more authority to take corrective action during school visits.  

There should be some plan of action such as the formation of special teams to identify children who have dropped out from school and bring them back into the mainstream. 

Infrastructural facilities and resources need to be improved / provided, including: furniture; bore well; photocopier; grant / fund for maintenance, whitewash and repair; water facilities; laptop for BRTEs; internet / email connection at the BRCs for quick and easy dispatch of weekly reports; sufficient (and timely) supply of ABL cards / ALM kits; carpet for use in ABL method; resource books and other reference material (including on current affairs); two-wheelers / bus pass for school visits in remote areas. To ensure safety of the things in the office, a watchman could be appointed. In addition, some districts require buildings for schools. 

10.        was the report published         :           Not yet. 

11.        From whom can a copy of the report be obtained:  State Project Director, Chennai           

                                                            X

 

1)         Title of the study:                                 Assessment and Realignment of Existing SSA         

                                                                            Management System in Tamil Nadu

2)         Broad field of the Study    :                 Identification of the functional aspects of SSA  

                                                                            Management  system in order to focus on realignment

3)      Name of the principal investigators

         and co-investigators (underlining surnames).    Dr. A  M  Sakkthivel,  Study  Expert

4)         Name and address of organization

        / institution (and department) where the study was conducted.                           LIBA   

5)         Year of commencement   :       October, 2007

6)         Year of completion     :              March 2008

 

7)         Objectives of the study 

1.       To assess the functional aspects existing SSA management system

2.       Understand the need and requirement of BRTEs in order to effectively exercising their duties and responsibilities.

3.       To design a robust management system

8)         Scope and geographical coverage (states, districts, blocks)

            The study was conducted in all the districts (30 districts) of Tamil Nadu 

9)         Methodology   (details of tools of data collection target population sampling design and sample size for the different types of units (eg) schools, teachers, pupils, households etc from, whom the data was collected.   The type of data collected from each such source and details of data analysis.)

            The study was conducted on BRTEs (population of the study).  The study required a primary data to be collected from the respondents.   The study adopted multi-tier sampling plan viz.  Quota Sampling (BRTEs), Area Sampling (from different districts and blocks) and random sampling (BRTEs) were randomly selected from each district).  The structured collection tool was used to collect the primary data from the respondents (BRTEs) through personal interview method.   The investigators had been selected from each district and provided ample orientation and training for the data collection process.   The collection tool consist of dichotomous, Attitude Scale, and ranking method in order to capture the reliable data from the selected respondents.

10)          Major findings;

                              1. Most of the respondents are positive about the recent changes that are happening in the organization.

                              2. Most of the respondents are agreeing to that the state level support is effective than District and Block level in various aspects in order to exercise their duties and responsibilities effectively.

                              3. Most of the respondents are highly satisfied with the grievance handling, training offered, guidance from the state level superiors and the least satisfied with the liberty offered to work.

                             4.  Most of the respondents quote the followings is the factors that have helped them to develop their confidence and improvement in performance in the order of preference VIZ. Training offered, guidance and support from the superiors, proper coordination among all levels, encouragement and motivation from superiors, easy approach to superiors and least preferred were the immediate action and grievance handling by superiors and the ample recognition for the good performance.

                            5. Most of the respondents quote the following measures that are required from the superiors to discharge their work effectively in the order of preference VIZ. Ample time to complete the work, Flexible monitoring system, Suitable and timely training, encouragement and motivation, Open communication to reach superiors, Role description and responsibilities, Proper guidance and support from superiors etc.

                           6. Most of the respondents perceived the changes in the mindset of headmasters in terms of gauging performance in the order of preference VIZ, Quality of the process, outcomes of the process and expenditure.

             Conclusion;

                                The study unearthed the perception of the BRTEs towards the functional aspects of SSA management system which would help the organization to realign and refocus to make the system more effective. The study revealed that most of the respondents are positive above the changes and welcomed the same. The study portrayed the level of support offered to the BRTEs in which state level tops the table, followed by block level and district level. It also revealed the factors that influence the confidence, performance of the respondents and satisfied and dissatisfied aspects. It is evident that ample time to complete work and flexible monitoring system would help the BRTEs to discharge their duties effectively.

11).      was the report published?      Yes/ No.           No.

12).      From whom can the report be obtained;       State project office, Tamil Nadu.      

Evaluation of Programmes

Evaluation by External Agencies

Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore and Allagappa University, Karaikudi have been entrusted with the task of evaluating the various programmes under SSA. Seventeen Districts have been allotted to IIM, Bangalore and thirteen Districts have been earmarked for Allagappa University, Karaikudi. They have selected one district in their jurisdiction and visited DPO, BRC, CRC, VEC and schools. The feeback  received from them will be used for better implementations of the SSA project.

Evaluation of the Remedial Coaching Classes for SC/ST Children

 The DTERT and DIETs have been entrusted with the task of evaluating the progress of SC/ST children who are undergoing the process of remedial coaching classes after the school hours on the following aspects:

1.       The attendance of the children

2.       The adequacy of teaching methods

3.       The achievement of the children in academic subjects

A team of DIET faculty members have already visited the schools and assessed the impact. The report is awaited.

Evaluation of the Block Resource Centres

Avinasilingam Deemed University at Coimbatore has been entrusted with the evaluation of the implementation of useful vocational skill development activities organized for girls children studying in 6, 7, and 8th classes under the innovative programme. Activities such as Dressmaking, Tailoring, Toy making, Food preparation and preservation, Drawing and painting, Music, Dance, etc., have been introduced. The report is awaited.

Evaluation of Block & Cluster Resource Centres  

An evaluation committee consisting of experts/professors working in Annamalai University has conducted the Evaluation of BRC and CRC in selected districts in Tamil Nadu.

Supervision and Monitoring

Sustained and intensive monitoring of the implementation of the programme at all levels has been ensured.  Project Monitoring is taken up regularly at the State, District and Sub-district levels. VEC meetings are convened twice a month to assess the progress of school programmes.  AEEOs, CRC, BRC and DPO staff visit schools frequently and record their observations in a visit format to initiate follow-up measures. District Collectors conduct review meetings once or twice a month and guide the project staff in effective implementation of project activities.  Each Director/Joint Director in the School Education Department is assigned with one/two Districts(s) for supervision and monitoring. The State Project Director, SSA, conducts review meetings fortnightly/monthly for the State and District Project Officials.  The Secretary, School Education Department, reviews the progress with Directors/Joint Directors and also conducts joint review meetings with the DPCs,

Additional DPCs and ADPCs. Comprehensive review formats are used to consolidate and assess the physical and financial progress every month. Rating and Ranking are done for activity-wise achievement against the target in every District.

Overall performance ranking is done every month and the comparative rank is informed to District Collectors and DPCs for further action. The State Co-ordinators team visit districts on rotation to monitor and ensure that follow-up action is taken. Moreover, web-enabled monitoring mechanism is in place.

XI 

1.

Title of the Study

:

Instructional and Nurturant effect of Activity based learning – An impact study in selected District of Tamil Nadu.

 

2.

Name of the Principal investigator

:

Prof. Dr. P. Prema

 

3.

Name of the organization

:

Alagappa University

Karikudi, Tamil Nadu.

 

4.

Year of completion

:

February 2009.

 

5.

Geographical coverage

:

Dindigul, Madurai, Pudukottai, Ramanathapuram, Sivagangai, Thanjavur, Trichirapalli, Theni, Thoothukudi, Tirunelveli and Virudhunagar.

 

6.

Objection of the Study

:

 

 

(1)    To find out the effectiveness of ABL approach in enhancing the academic performance of Primary Children from I std IV Std in selected Districts. 

(2)    To assess the nurturant effects such as

a.     Peer – helping tendency

b.     Self – image

c.      Enjoyment through the process of learning with understanding 

(3)    To examine the long term effect on ABL approach in schools,  which have implemented in three years back two years ago and in the last year. 

(4)    To assess the attitude of teachers with a minimum of 10 years of experience,  who can compare earlier approaches and the present ABL approach. 

(5)    To identity problem if any, faced by the head, teacher and the children.

  

7.

Methodology

:

The investigation will adopt survey – cum – expost facto – cum experimental method to fulfill the objective stated.

 

 

            Population:  AL  the schools  implementing ABL approach in  Tamil Nadu. 

            Sample:     4 Districts nearer to Alapagga University selected based on accessibility to collect data 60 different variety of Schools from each district were randomly selected based on number of years of implementation. 

            Tools:   1.  Achievement test in Tamil, English, Maths and Environmental studies. 

2.     Observation and Attitude scale. 

3.     Problem check list to be administered to Primary School Teacher and heads. 

4.     A Scale to assess the self-concept of children. 

5.     An interview schedule to assess the emotions of children. 

6.     An opinionnaire to parents.

 

8.

Major findings:

:

Positive impact of ABL on various Aspects.

 

 

INSTRUCTIONAL  EFFECT

 

 

 

 

  1. Childrens’ overall academic performance.
  1. Improvement in the mastery of linguistic skills such as reading, writing, narrating and other cognitive, domains including numerical skills.
  1. ABL approach promotes learning with understanding and has no place for rote memorization.
  1. All the Children are really active in all the ABL Classrooms.
  1. ABL is an individualized approach thus promoting inclusiveness and democratization of the educative process.
  1. The Principle of Social Justice is fully operational as evidenced by the ABL classrooms.
  1. A perceptible paradigm shift from teacher – centered to learner centered method.
  1. Learning is based on logical and Psychological approaches.
  1. There is variety in learning.

 

 

 

         

 NURTURANT  EFFECT 

          The nurturant effects of ABL as seen in the classrooms are many          

          They are: 

1.

Children’s increased access to teachers because of the seating arrangement

 

2.

socialization of children since ABL promotes learning in groups.

 

3.

Tendency to help peers.

 

4.

Self-help skills

 

5.

Mental relaxation

 

6.

Kindling of curiosity

 

7.

Learning with enjoyment

 

8.

Room for self-correction in cognitive activities

 

9.

Increased self-esteem because of low level black boards, self-attendance, special spaces for each child and picture display.

 

10.

Total involvement of children in the learning process which ensures more permanent learning.

 

11.

cost-effective healthy seating arrangement using mats.

 

12.

Indoor and outdoor games promoting fine muscle and large muscle coordination.

 

13.

Improvement in the handwriting.

 

14.

Improvement in personal hygiene.

 

15.

Overall sense of cleanliness and order in the classroom through arranging the cards while learning and replacing them.

 

16.

Parents are very happy about the visible improvement of children in academic performance, emotional competence, happiness, social skills and personal hygiene.

 

17.

Peer helping tendency is increased.

 

18.

Values of humanism, love, tolerance, helping tendency are promoted through various health.

 

19.

Overall mental health is improved because every child is happy.

 

  

9.

Was the report published?      (Yes / No)              :  No

 

10.

From whom can a copy of the report be obtained?

From the State Project Director, SSA, Tamil Nadu.

 XII

1.

Title of the study

:

Time on Task of Teachers and students in Primary schools of Tamil Nadu.

2.

Objectives of the study

:

1.      To observe and describe various group and individual tasks/ activities of students during school hours.

 

2.      To observe and record teachers’ activities in class and purpose of each activity and to relate them to the learning and other activities of students.

 

3.      To assess the time spent on active learning and other activities by students inside classroom during the school hours.

 

4.      To identify broad categories or patterns of tasks / activities and to find if there is any association between such patterns and scholastic achievement of students.

 

3.

Geographical coverage and sample size

 

:

Ten selected districts of Tamil Nadu.

 

(Coimbatore, Cuddalore, Dharmapuri, Madurai, Nagapattinam, Salem, Thiruvallur, Ramanathapuram, Thanjavur,  Thiruvannamalai.

(80 Primary Schools).

 

4.

Tools / methods uses for data collection

 

:

Classroom observation method – using five schedules (TS-1,  TS-2,  TS-3,  TS-4,  TS-5)

 

5.

Name and address of the agency which conducted the study

:

RESU,  ED-CIL’s  Technical support group,

New Delhi.

6.

Name and designation of Principal Investigator

:

Prof.  ABL  Srivastava,

Chief Consultant,

RESU,  ED-CIL’s  TSG,  New Delhi.

 

7.

When was the study commissioned / started?  (Month & Year) 

:

March  -  2009

 

8.

When was it completed?  (Month & Year) 

:

May  -  2009

 

9.

Specific use of the study 

:

Study is useful to find out how teachers and students spend their time on various teaching – learning activities in schools.   Based on the finding new programmes can be adopted to minimise the time spent on off-Task activities.

XIII 

 

1.

Title of the Study

:

Teachers’ Absenteeism and Students’      Attendance in Primary and  Upper Primary schools in Tamilnadu.

 

2.

Name and address of the Investigator

:

Dr. G. Kalaiyarasan, Associate Professor,  School of Education.   Alagappa University, Karaikudi.

 

3.

Year of completion

:

January 2010

 

4.

Geographical coverage

:

Sivagangai, Virudhunagar and Thirunelveli

 

5.

Sample Size

:

5% of schools in each district

 

6.

Method of Study

:

Survey method

 

7.

Objectives  of the Study

:

§   To study the absenteeism of the teachers in relation to the meetings  and  trainings.

§   To study the absenteeism of the teachers in relation to legitimate leave such as CL, ML.

§   To study the absenteeism of the teachers in relation to the various teaching and                        non-teaching related activities.

§   To study the absenteeism of the students in relation to the various factors.

§   To find out the strategies followed by HM to manage the teachers’ absenteeism and late-coming.

§   To find out the strategies followed by HM to manage the students’ absenteeism.

§   To observe the attendance position and activities of the teachers during different visits. 

8.     Major findings of the study:

                    

·        On average, a teacher spent 25-35 days as ML, CL, OD or for higher education purpose.

·        According to Headmasters about 50% of the teachers’ absenteeism is due to health problems of teacher and their family members.

·        Around 88% of teachers were present in the school during visit

·        160-163 days have been spent by teachers for teaching.

·        52-57% of days of the teachers’ absenteeism is related to meeting and training.

 

9.     STUDENT ABSENTEEISM:

Ø      At Primary level 70-75% absenteeism is due to health problem. At Upper Primary level it is only about 10%.

Ø      The difference in absenteeism rate in both male and female children is about 1.5-3.0%.

Ø      The attendance rate of SC/ST is 92-97%, MBC/BC is 90-97%, Muslim is 97-100%.

Ø      About 19% of students’ absenteeism is related to earning work in Virudhunagar district(fire crackers production)

Strategies of HMs towards Teachers’ Late-coming and Student Absenteeism:         

v     Organising meetings (77-85%)

v     Diagnosing the children problem (66-74%)

v     Making the children aware of punctuality (60-69%)

v     Giving gifts/rewards (53-69%)

v     Making the students watch audio-visual program during absence of teachers.

v     HMs  themselves engage the classes

v     Recording the exact time of arrival and marking leave are major strategies followed by HMs to tackle the late coming of students and teachers.

XIV

1.

Title of the Study

:

Teacher Absenteeism and student attendance in selected District of Tamil Nadu.

2.

Name and address of the Investigator

:

Dr. S. Subbiah

Department of English & Foreign Languages.

Alagappa University.

 

3.

Year of completion

:

2010

4.

Geographical coverage

:

Pudukottai,  Thanjavur & Tiruchirappalli.

5.

Sample Size

:

1866 schools selected in 3 districts.

6.

Objectives  of the Study

:

To find out the Status of the Problem of Teacher Absenteeism and student attendance.

To find out that the attendance rate of the children is a major factor determine the quality of learning.

7.

Method of Study

:

Data Collection through Questionnaries.

1) Toilet facilities & Drinking water facilities in middle Schools are 100%             

2) 15%  Primary Schools require Toilet.

3)  Almost all the teachers are regular appointment.

Attendance Status of Teachers on the day of Visits

1.     Primary  -   97%    (3%   went  on leave)

2.     Upper Primary  -   95%  (5%  went on leave) 

Reason for teachers being frequently absent.

1)     Health reason of the Teacher                               -        33.33%

2)     Health Problem of family member                        -        28.93%

3)     Festivals / Religious function                               -        17.39%

4)     Family Problem                                                    -        14.49%

5)     Others (Personal work)                                         -        6.66%

6)     Residence faraway from school                            -        5% 

Strategies adopted by Heads when Teachers are not Present in School.

1)     Some other Teacher is assigned.

2)     Combined class.

3)     Community member takes class.

4)     Students study on their own.

5)     Class Teacher handle the class.

6)     Students allowed to play.

7)     HM takes class.

8)     Students exposed to A/V aids.

Late Coming by Teachers

1)      Punctual Teachers    -   89.85%

2)      Late Coming Teachers  -  10.15%

Late coming by teachers – strategies adopted by HM.

·        3 late comings are considered as 1 day leave       -        2.89%

·        Timings are noted in attend                                 -        4.34%

·        HM is punctual                                                    -        96.89%

·        Enquiry for late coming                                        -        1.66%

·        Casual leave is allowed                                         -        1.66%

Social Group wise attendance status of Teachers During Visits.

 

PRIMARY

Community

Pudukottai

Thanjavur

Tiruchirappalli

SC

92%

89.74%

91.48%

MBC

100%

88.46%

94.44%

BC

99%

97.93%

90.83%

Others

100%

85.71%

          100%         

 

 

 

 

 

UPPER PRIMARY

SC

100%

91.30%

80%

MBC

100%

94.44%

88.88%

BC

97.43%

95.12%

96.15%

Others

100%

85.71%

100%

                             Students’ Attendance  during visits.

Std

Male

Female

I

99.11

98.72

II

84.94

91.36

III

83.30

95.77

IV

92.81

94.77

V

95.76

95.87

VI

89.73

88.53

VII

95.60

81.75

VIII

91.30

90.63

 

 

 

 

 

 Students’ Absenteeism – Strategies Adopted by Head Teacher

1.     Meets & Counsel Parents to send their children           -        47%

2.     Problem Discussed in VEC Meeting                               -        17%

3.     Visits to hereby homes of students to bring them back

to the school.                                                                 -        29%

4.     Reinforcing by distributing gifts                                    -        7%

Students late coming  -  Strategies  adopted  by HM & Teacher.

1)     Analysing the cause of Late Coming and discussing with parent - 76.33%

2)     Making them to take interest in the students physical health             -  5.80%

3)     Giving advice to come to school in time                                       - 17.20%

4)     Making the students to do small work when they come late        - 1.67%

 XV

1.

Title of the Study

:

A Study on absenteeism among teachers and students in selected districts of Tamil Nadu.

2.

Name and address of the Investigator

:

Dr. M. Jayakumar

Bharathiar University, Coimbatore.

 

3.

Year of completion

:

January 2010

4.

Geographical coverage

:

Coimbatore, The Nilgris, Karur, Dharmapuri & Vellore

5.

Objectives of the study  :

 

 

v     The  percentage of attendance of students across various standards (I – VIII Standard) and to understand the absenteeism pattern of the students. 

v     The gender-wise variation in attendance among students across various Standards (I – VIII Standard)  and to understand the role of social groups in observing absenteeism behavior. 

v     The Social group-wise variation in attendance of the students across various standards (I – VIII Standard)  and to understand the role of social groups in observing absenteeism behaviour. 

v     Gender-wise, age-wise and social group-wise percentage of teachers in relation to the students they teach.             

v     The reasons for absence among the teachers in relation to their social category. 

v     Distribution of teachers who have carried out various activities during working days which include teaching. 

v     Gender-wise and standard-wise distribution of Students absenteeism among various reasons listed.

6.

Sample Size

:

5% sample schools in the selected districts.

7.

Method of study

:

Data collection by 3 questionnaires filled by HMs, field investigators and teachers of primary and upper primary schools.

Data analysis with help of SPSS packages.

Key findings of the study :

·        Boy’s enrolment is higher than girls enrolment in classes except in Coimbatore district. 

·        Girl’s enrolment declines and dropout rate increases after 6th std.          

·        Attendance percentage is above 90% in III, IV, & V in all district. 

·        Attendance percentage in I & II std was little less (85-92%) (personal attention to every child & home visits by teachers will increase the percentage). 

·        In upper primary classes the percentage attendance was above 90% (in some districts were seasonal unemployment is prevailing, the percentage went down up to 85%.

 

·        Attendance percentage of girls was more than boys in all districts (1;1:12)

Reasons for Students Absenteeism :  

·        Percentage of absenteeism is between 6 to 16.

·        Sickness is the major cause.

·        Attending family functions.

·        Parent’s ailment.

·        Residence faraway.

·        Taking care of siblings.

·        Income generating work.

·        Fear of punishment.

Teachers Profile :

·        In all the selected districts, number of female teachers is more than male teachers (1:1.35).

 

·        Teachers and students are in ratio 1:35.

·        SC, ST group percentage is 18% - 22%.

·        31-40 years age group is high.

·        More than 40% have completed their graduation & post graduation.

·        An average of 65% & 25% teachers have completed D.T.Ed. & B.Ed qualifications – Recently appointed teachers are highly qualified teachers.

 

·        In 2008-09 – 61% teachers have not availed medical leave.

 

·        11% of teachers availed 10-20 days ML.

·        3% of teachers 30-50% days ML.

·        5% have availed more than 50 days.

·        7% of working days were spent for training/meeting.

·        3-4% spent on casual leave & M.L respective.

·        69% of total working days were used effectively for teaching classes.

·        Out of 31% of working days.

o       7% for attending training.

o       17% for Exam, sports, exhibition, cultural program.

o       7% medical leave (or) CL. 

·        Around 82% of teachers were in class room teaching during visit.

·        36% teachers were trained for 15-20 days 29% teachers were trained above 20 days (BRC, CRC, State level, Yoga, British Council Training). 

·        During vacation training program are held below 5 days.

·        Most of the teachers were doing administrative work up to 2 teachers/week (very few above 6 hrs/week). 

Reasons for Absenteeism Teachers :

·        39% was due to health problem. 

·        20% due to family problems. 

·        Considerable percentage of teachers are attending contact classes, doing projects. 

·        None of them took leave for economic, social & political activities. 

·        During absence of teachers are adapting.

1.     44% acting period.

2.     51% talking classes by themselves.

3.     3-5% audio-visual aids – adequate audio and visual aids are available in all schools.

 

Field Investigators Observations :

·        100% of schools have water supply.

·        96% of schools have water purifier.

·        90% of schools have toilet facilities with water facilities.

·        10-20% schools have round tables & chairs for ABL class.

·        Many schools have DVD players, computers.

·        In some schools, students were provided with ID cards.

 

 

 

 

 

XVI

1.

Title of the study  :

Evaluation  Report on the Effectiveness of Training Programme on Activity Based Learning.

 

2.

Name and address of the investigators  :

1. Thiru R. Chandrababu

2. Thiru G.Murali

Dept of  Evaluation & Applied Research , Kuralagam, Chennai- 108.

  

3.

Year of Completion  :

October 2010

 

4.

Geographical coverage of the study ( Districts)  :

 

1. Erode,

2. Madurai,

3. Thoothukudi,

4. Thiruvannamalai

 

5.

Sample  size              :

16 Schools, 640 Sample Students, 80 BRTEs,             56 Teachers.

 6. Objectives of the Study

1.              To access the impact of ABL Training given to teachers.

2.              To study the implementation process of ABL Training

3.              To examine the physical and financial performance of SSA Scheme in relation to Training.

4.              To ascertain the present status  of the infrastructure facilities available in the sample schools.

5.              To suggest suitable remedial measures to improve the performance of ABL training under SSA.

 

7.  Methodology used for the study

1.           Primary data collected through questionnaires.

2.           Secondary data collected from records

3.           Detailed focus group discussion with officials.

8.  Sample Design

1.           2 Districts having literacy rate below the state average and 2 districts having literacy rate above the state average.

2.           From each sample district, 2 sample Blocks were randomly selected.                       2 schools were selected randomly from sample blocks.

3.           From each sample school 40 sample students were selected at random at the rate of 10 each from  1st to 4th standards.

4.           All Primary teachers ( 56) in sample schools and 10 BRTEs from each sample block were selected.

9.  Key Findings

·           All BRTEs were satisfied with the place of training timing and duration of the training programmes.

·           All reported that adequate gap between trainings  may be given between trainings may be given.

·           Nearly 95% of the teachers informed that they have gained clarity and confidence in planning and preparing for the class room interaction.

·           About 86% teachers has opined that training  has motivated them to do their levels best.

·           Most of the teachers expressed that the content of the training is limited .

·           In all sample schools  protected drinking water is provided to the children.

·           All children of the sample schools is effectively utilizing the low level boards.

·           The introduction of ABL method has improved the attendance rate of  the children (99%).

·           The performance of sample students (Excepting  Istd ) was found good.

10.  Suggestions:

·           The target for the training may be fixed in terms of number of teachers instead of training days.

·           Similar to Self learning  Maths Kits , Science kit box may also given to  the students.

·           Small round tables may be supplied to all schools under SSA.

 XVII

 

1.

Title of the study

:

An Evaluation of ABL in Tamil Nadu,  2009. 

(A Trigger for change in Primary Education).

2.

Name of the Investigators

:

Dr. Subir Shukla & Dr. R. Akila

(National Education Consultants)

3.

Year of completion

:

2010

4.

Geographical coverage

:

The Evaluation was done with a 5% sample (1832 schools) of all govts, and aided primary and upper primary schools in Tamilnadu which follow the ABL method for classes 1 to 4.

5.

Objectives of the study

:

1.     How relevant has ABL been in terms of bringing about a fresh climate of change in the primary education scenario of the state.

 

 

 

 

2.     To what extent has ABL been able to positively impact on the stakeholders/target communities in bringing about the desired changes.

 

 

 

 

3.     How well has ABL achieved the intended results in terms of quality, quality and timeline of children’s primary education from classed              1 to 4.

6.

Tools used

:

           6 Tools used

A.    School observation schedule

B.    Classroom observation schedule.

C.    Teachers questionnaire

D.   HM interview schedule

E.    Parents interview schedule

F.     VEC interview schedule

 

7.

Method of study

:

Data collected by Observation, questionnaire, interview and written tests.

8.

Samples

:

1.       1832 schools studied

2.       1860 HMs were met

3.       2918 teachers – interviewed

4.       7500 parents offered opinions

5.       7080 VEC members were contacted.

6.       Achievement tests conducted for all 5 subjects (20,000 children).

9.

Key Findings

:

1.     91% HMs mentioned that they have received ABL training from SSA.

2.     98% of the HMs welcomed the support given to their teachers by BRTEs.

3.     75% of them felt that the frequent external trainings organised by SSA to their teachers did affect the classroom processes in the schools and hence looks for better modes of training.

4.     About 50% of HMs felt that ABL afforded a friendly approach to the active learning of differently abled children.

5.     95% of teachers felt that the children’s learning skills have vastly improved because of ABL.

6.     92% of teachers opined that reading and writing skills have greatly improved among children.

7.     85% of them felt that the ABL cards are an interesting source of knowledge to the children.

8.     72% of the teachers felt that the frequent training from SSA hindered their classroom work with children.

9.     60% of them felt that confusion among classroom activities arouse due to the multi grade multiclass system followed in ABL.

 

10.   All parents mentioned that their children loved going to school eagerly and happily.

11.   90% parents were glad that their children’s reading skills had improved.

12.   80% of parents were glad that they did not suffer from any pressure to prepare their children for exams.

13.   90% of VEC members said that VEC meetings were regularly conducted and discussed ABL related matters.

 

Table :  Proportionate distribution of low, middle and high scorers among children who took the tests in M3, T3  and E3  (Number  &  %  Share)

Subjects

0

Low Scorers

Middle Scorers

High Scorers

Total

Children in M3

165

4417

11819

6310

22711

% Share in M3

0.72

19.44

52.04

27.78

100

Children in T3

0

4235

6900

9121

20256

% Share in T3

0

20.90

34.06

45.02

100

Children in E3

118

2280

4960

4582

11949

% Share in E3

0.98

19.08

41.58

38.34

100

 Based on above observations, it could be concluded that ABL has been able to bring about a vibrant change in the primary education scenario of the state through its innovative concept and design.

XVIII

 

1.

Title of the Study

:

Eliminating Gender Gap in Education through Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya (KGBV).

 

2.

Name & Address of Project Investigators

:

Dr. N. Manimekalai, Director,             Dept. of Women’s studies Bharathidasan University, Trichy.

 

3.

Year of completion

:

January 2011

4.

Geographical Coverage

:

Villupuram, Salem & Krishnagiri

 

5.

Sample size

:

11 schools

6.

Methodology of the Research

:

Survey, interview, individual interaction, observation and focus group discussion

7.

Tools administered

:

Questionnaire

8.

Objectives of the Study

 

 

1.              To find out the scio economic background of the students and identify the reasons for dropout or not enrolling into the school. 

2.                 To investigate the kind of struggles and issues faced by the respondents before enrolling to KGBV and the relief if any from such issues after enrolling to KGBV. 

3.               To evaluate the functioning of the schemes as per the norms stipulated by the State and Central Governments and innovations made by various institutions, schools, parents, community, VEC, NGO’s in implementation. 

4.                 To record the perceptions about KGBV among public, teachers and students. 

5.         To identify the problems faced by SSA officials NGO’s in implementing the scheme. 

6.                 To bring out case studies of successful girls.

7.                 To check out the achievement of the Minimum Learning levels of the disadvantaged children.

8.                 To assess the adequacy of infrastructure, girl friendly environment, safe drinking water, food, medical, counseling facilities etc. 

9.                 To enlist the kind of life skill education & co-curricular activities given the scheme. 

10.            To examine the functioning of VEC, to help in reducing the gender gap in education.

 9.

 Key findings of the study  :-

  

 

           General Observations :-

          KGBV scheme is a blessing opportunity for the never enrolled and dropout girls to continue their education.

         Vocational training given to girls will help them in case of not continuing their education.

         Self confidence of the students has been enhanced.

         There is a need for teachers to get trained not just on the various methods of teaching but on the objective of the scheme which is to reduce the gap.

           From the psychological assessment of KGBV beneficiaries, it was understood that the inmates in general are happy to study staying in such school compared with the regular school.

            Apart from providing curriculum based education, KGBV scheme played the important role to provide personal hygiene management education to the students.

            Student’s opinion on teaching method revealed that they are happy with the new methodologies like ABL, ALM and other innovative methods which were not earlier present in the regular schools.

            In general the students were happy to see and operate the computer.

            Individual attention to the students is good as the teacher pupil ration is comfortable.

            Vocational training taught is useful and students are happy with the skills such as sewing, stitching, basket making, toy making, kunthan jewel making.

             As far as the Library usage is concerned there are number of useful books in the libraries but the percentage of use is less than 40%.

             As regards the stationery given, all the students expressed satisfaction over the provision.

             In certain schools, environment of the school is very appealing and students are surrounded with green environment.  But the space within the building is limited and hence same space is used for multipurpose.

            Place for sleeping has been well structured in certain schools, but in most of the schools the actual space for sleeping which is provided in the first floor is normally unoccupied for fear of evil spirit.

            Nearly 5% of students expressed that more holidays could be given instead of providing only on festive days.

             There is a feeling that the students are in 24 hours school atmosphere with academic activities.  The children must feel childhood atmosphere to enjoy childhood without assigning any academic duties for few hours.

            Being residential school providing residential teachers is a blessing to children, that teachers have plenty of time spend with children to cull out their problems.

            Another major observation is that the syllabus is heavy, being dropout and lost studies it is difficult to move on the ladder 6,7,8 classes.  So there has to be some consideration to give a light syllabus but train them on analytical skills to understand the subject to get mainstreamed.

            A group of 8th completed girls has been working in Tiruppur Textile mills under sumangali scheme (a modern bonded labour system). Experiences of such students discourage the other students to go to regular school.

            As far as the students learning difficulties are concerned, students face issues in learning science, Maths and English.  Teachers are more concerned with completion of syllabus and coaching to score marks rather than teaching thoroughly.

          Parents will be willing to send their girls to further education when same kind of support is extended without burdening them.

          Books, reading materials and other teaching aids received by schools have not been utilized properly.

           Parent Teachers Association meeting is normally not conducted as per the norms.

Recommendation : -

1.        ALM should be strengthened.

2.        More innovative teaching methodology can be adopted.

3.        KGBV students could be integrated with formal school children in various competitions, cultural activities.

4.        Individual counseling session, at least weekly once can be recommended.

5.        Special attention to slow learners could be given more.

6.        It is necessary that ten life skills must be taught to the inmates.

7.        Professional training may be extended.

8.        All the teachers as per the SSA norms must be residential in KGBV schools.

 

9.        As far as the classroom facilities, adequacy of space is concerned, it is suggested that additional classrooms are necessary.

 

10.      Awareness about KGBV schools among the public could   be increased.

11.      The mark system and scoring may be replaced with Q  grading system.

12.      PTA meeting must be conducted regularly.

Conclusion :- 

    The evaluation of the KGBV scheme of SSA in Tamil Nadu has contributed for reducing the gender gap in education in the chosen blocks of the district to the number of students admitted into KGBV school who otherwise would have remained dropped out or never enrolled.  It is a revival of interest to continue their studies for many girls.  In the absence of such schools the students would not have had the chance of getting into schools particularly the never enrolled and the students from poor economic background and the parentless.  The KGBV school children must have a different syllabus and instead of mainstreaming them, it is better that they have an exclusive school till 12th standard accommodated under Public Private Partnership, using the Corporate Social Responsibility of the Major public and private sector corporations, so that it is not always, the tax money is being spent on such scheme but it is made as the responsibility of the big corporations which are also committed to support for social cause. The gender gap has come down and it can be further brought down by intensive campaigning of the Right to Education which is being done at present with the support of Tamil Nadu Science Forum with the modes of Kalaikuzhu and other street theatre etc.  Which has to be strengthened further to make the people to have a change in their attitude and mind set about the girls children.  Only such aspects will reduce the gender gap and enable to achieve not just the    3rd MDG ensuring gender inequality but to achieve other MDGs such as reducing MMR, ensuring environment and sustainable development, health for all and every other MDG could be achieved only when the attitude of the people towards girls is given up.   

     KGBV is a boon for the students who otherwise might have lost the opportunity for being in school.  It is a dream for many to enjoy the school environment which was missing earlier and offered in the name of KGBV.  Thanks to SSA for exclusively focusing to girls drop out under KGBV and it is expected that similar scheme must continue till 12th class as expressed by students, teachers, parents, NGOs and also SSA officials.  It may appear that it is going to bring a dependency among the students.  But it is not, if the real objective is to reduce gender gap and promote education among the girls, it has to be continued till 12th class.  In the context of Right to Education being compulsory, the need for such scheme will disappear or will have to be made to disappear, but it depends on the attitude of the parents not just the policies and programmes alone would ensure gender equality.  Any initiative to continue further as already emerging in the name of KGKMVK, some schemes to cater the needs of moving the KGBV further is needed but it must be done with the support of people and civil society and with Public Private Partnership.  

XIX

1.

Title of the Study

:

A critical Analysis on the functioning of computer Assisted Learning Centres (CALC)  (in Thiruchirappalli,   Thanjavur and Perambalur Districts)

 

2.

Name & Address of Project Investigators

:

Dr. K. Anandan,

Associate Professor and HOD,

Department of Education,

(Bharathidasan University),

Trichirappalli – 620 024.

 

3.

Year of completion

:

January 2011

4.

Geographical Coverage

:

Perambalur, Trichirappalli and Thanjavur.

 

5.

Sample size

:

64 CAL Centres in 3 districts

 

6.

Methodology of the Research

:

Survey method

 

7.

Tools administered

:

Questionnaire, Interview schedule, observation.

 

8.

 

Objectives of the Study

 

 

 

Ø              To study the effectiveness of the CAL centres on the Academic improvement among the students from the opinion of the HM’s,  BRT’s, Teachers and Students.

 

Ø              To study the quality of functioning of CAL centres with respect to different factors such as attitude of the Students, Infrastructure and Maintanence of Computers, Teachers and BRC’s role and Computer training among HM’s and Teachers.

 

Ø              To measure the quality of functioning of CAL centres with respect to different factors such as Supervision of CAL centres, HM’s and Teachers role, Students participation among BRT’s.

 

Ø              To find out the quality of functioning of CAL centres with respect to different factors such as Mentality of the students, Learning environment, Sharing of computers, CAL Teachers and HM’s role among Students.

 

Ø              To compare the opinion of HM’s,  BRT’s, Teachers and Students towards the performance of CAL centres between different districts such as Tiruchirappalli, Thanjavur and Perambalur districts

9.   Key findings of the study

          SALIENT FINDINGS

                    The salient findings of the study are given below.

       i.            Mean scores towards the Opinion of the Headmasters regarding the performance of the CAL centres were around 77, 78 and 79 in Tiruchirappalli, Thanjavur and Perambalur districts respectively which implies positive attitude. 

     ii.            Opinion of the CAL Teachers  Mean scores towards the performance of the CAL centres were around 80, 75 and 78 in Tiruchirappalli, Thanjavur and Perambalur districts respectively which denotes positive impact towards the functioning of the CAL centres. 

  iii.            Mean scores towards the Opinion of the BRT’s regarding the performance of the CAL centres were around 78, 80 and 78 in Tiruchirappalli, Thanjavur and Perambalur districts respectively which highlights significant favourable response towards the CAL centres. 

    iv.            Opinion of the Students Mean scores towards the performance of the CAL centres were around 75, 73 and 74 in Tiruchirappalli, Thanjavur and Perambalur districts respectively which means the positive response about the functioning of the CAL centres. 

      v.            Opinion of the HM’s and Teachers with respect to different factors such as Attitude of the Students, Infra-structure and Maintenance of Computers, Teacher’s role, BRC’s role and Computer Training are positive. 

    vi.            BRC’s opinion regarding the performance of the CAL centres with respect to the different factors such as Computer in Classroom Instruction, Supervision of CAL centres, HM’s and Teachers role and Students participation are positive. 

 vii.            Students opinion with respect to the performance of the CAL centres on different factors such as Mentality of the students, Learning environment, Sharing of computers, CAL Teachers role and HM’s role are positive.

 

XX

 

1.

Title of the Study

:

Evaluation of NPEGEL Programme in Tamil Nadu.

 

2.

Name & Address of Project Investigators

:

Dr. G. Kalaiyarasan,

Associate Professor,

School of Education,

Alagappa University,

Karaikudi – 630 003.

 

3.

Year of completion

:

January 2011

4.

Geographical Coverage

:

Dharmapuri. Erode & Villupuram Districts.

 

5.

Sample Size

:

52 Schools, 504 Teachers, 1200 students and 260 parents.

 

6.

Methodology of the Research

:

Survey Method

 

7.

Tools Administered

:

Questionnaire, Interview schedule & observation schedule.

 

8.

Objectives of the Study

 

 

 1.        To find out the effectiveness of NPEGEL on the performance of children in the classroom.

 

2.        To find out the self- confidence of children towards employability.

 

3.        To find out the impact of the programme towards developing technical skill of the children.

 

4.        To study the usefulness of the programme in the application of children’s skill towards their real life.

 

5.        To study the impact of the programme on the academic achievement of the children if any.

 

6.        To study the impact of the programme of the team spirit.

7.        To study the interest and attitude of the children towards this programme.

8.        To find out the impact of this programme towards developing scientific temper among children.

 

9.        To study the perspective of the teacher.

10.   To study the perspective of the parents towards this programme.

 

9.

Key findings of the study  :-

 

 

 

1)     Most of the Children acquired desired changes in their attitude through Yoga. 

2)     The children of 69% schools of 3 districts stated that they are able to apply karate for their self protection. 

3)     93-99% of the teachers of all the three districts welcome the NPEGEL activities. 

4)     76-95% of teachers have accepted the appropriateness of the activities. 

5)     85-87% teachers say that the skills developed through NPEGEL activities among students also develop the academic achievement. 

6)     90-99%  teachers agreed that the training develops self-confidence among students. 

7)     84-98% of teachers agreed that the training improves the self esteem among children. 

8)     67-89%  teachers say that NPEGEL activities made an improvement in attendance of the children. 

9)     81-94%  of the teachers have accepted that NPEGEL programme is a reward / boon to the poor children to improve their life. 

10)      According to 88-97% of the teachers, the NPEGEL activities help to utilize the leisure time of the children in an useful way. 

11)      76-90% of teachers agreed that NPEGEL activities lead the children to earn money by preparing materials during holidays also. 

12)     93-96%  of teachers agreed that the materials prepared by the children in NPEGEL activities are useful to beautify their house and its environment, which develops pleasure and aesthetic values among the children. 

13)     Around 92-95% of the teachers reported, that this programme have really developed the team spirit among the children. 

14)      74-92% teachers accepted that this programme develops discipline & culture among children.

15)      48-60% of the teachers are suggesting that the NPEGEL programme should exclusively be conducted only in Saturday. 

16)      92-97% of the teachers accepted that this programme enhanced the confidence of the children towards employment. 

17)       62-65% of teachers are expecting the training regarding NPEGEL activities. 

18)      88-96% of teachers reported that this programme should be provided to the boys. 

19)      100% children are very much fond of this NPEGEL programme. 

20)      99-100% children stated that the programme is really help to improve their life skills.

21)      79-98% of the children require working table for NPEGEL activities. 

22)      89-98% children are ready to come to the NPEGEL classes on Saturday. 

23)      91-97% of the parents expressed that the NPEGEL activities provided problem solving abilities of the children. 

24)      94-97% parents felt that NPEGEL activities reduce stress of the children through various factors. 

25)      There is a positive correlation between the academic achievement and performance in NPEGEL programme among the children. 

 

XXI

1.

Title of the Study

:

Active Learning Methodology –               A Review

2.

Name & Address of Project Investigators

:

Dr.Milind Brahme,                      Associate Professor

Dr. M. Suresh Babu,                   Associate Professor, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras.

 

3.

Year of completion

:

January 2011

4.

Geographical Coverage

:

Chennai, Coimbatore, Tirunelveli, Dindigul and Dharmapuri.

 

5.

Sample size

:

One best, two coverage, two below average schools in each district          (25 schools in 5 districts)

 

6.

Methodology of the Research

:

Survey method

 

7.

Tools administered

:

1. Achievement tests for 6th, 7th and 8th standard on Maths, Science, Social Science.

2. Observation Performa

3. Interview schedule

4. My self as a Learner Scale (MALS) 

8.

Objectives of the Study

:

The following are the objectives of the ALM review study:

1.       To analyse the nature of the physical setting in ALM class rooms, especially with regard to the space per child, light and ventilation and seating arrangements in the selected schools.

2.       To study the various pedagogical approaches, time division, assessment methods used by the teacher in the classroom while implementing ALM.

 

3.        To evaluate the achievement levels of students of 6th, 7th and 8th on the achievement test developed by the investigators in Maths, Science and Language subjects in the selected schools.

 

4.       To analyse the student responses on the Myself as a Learner Scale [MALS] (developed by Robert Burden of the University of Exeter) in terms of their self image, problem solving skills, decision making skills, and initiative taking skills.

(For assessing pupils academic self concept)

9.    Key findings of the study 

·        Difference in achievement scores between the boys and girls of urban schools on the achievement tests:

Except in one school, in all other schools all girls were higher than the boys in their achievement scores.

·        Difference in achievement scores between boys and girls of rural schools:

Except two schools, in all other schools the girls were higher than boys in their achievement scores.

·        Difference between boys of urban schools and boys of rural schools on the achievement tests: 

The rural schools have performed better than the urban schools on the academic achievement tests in three out of the five cases.

 

·        Difference between girls of urban schools and girls of rural schools on the achievement tests:

  

Out of six cases only in two instances the urban girls were better than the rural girls in terms of reference.

    

·           Difference in achievement scores between urban ands rural students on the achievement tests:

 

The results show that the rural students surpassed the urban students in 4 out of 7 cases on their achievement scores.

      The girls have performed better than the boys in  both the urban schools and rural schools.  The rural girls surpassed the urban girls on their achievement scores.  These data break the myth that the urban schools perform better than the rural schools because of their better quality of infrastructure, accessibility of schools, better student teacher ratio etc. whether ALM, as an intervening variable, is functioning as a strong factor to upgrade the achievement of the rural students and bring them on par with the urban students.

MALS :  (Myself  as a Learning Scale)

             The Myself as a Learner Scale developed by Robert Burden, emeritus professor of educational psychology at the university of Exeter, UK is a Questionnaire that has been designed and standardized with the purpose of assessing pupils academic self concept.  This scale aims at measuring student’s conception of themselves as learners and problem solvers.

             With due permission from the designer of the scale, the scale was translated into Tamil and was implemented to 6th, 7th and 8th  students.  Tamil version of MALS was used to obtain data on the academic self concept of students belonging to the 25 schools in five districts.  The objective of implementation of the scale was to get an idea about where these children stand as self Directed Learners.   A secondary objective was to explore whether there was any relationship between the MALS score of the students in each of the 25 schools and their academic achievement scores. 

Achievement tests used in the study:

              Three achievement tests were conducted in English, mathematics, Science with a total marks of 100 each for each of classes 6th, 7th & 8th.  The tests were based on the portion covered in the preceding school year.

 

Analysis of Data:  A graph was plotted with MALS scores and achievement scores of the children belonging to the 25 schools from the five districts of Tamilnadu.

 

Relationship between MALS and achievement score among the rural students:

              According to research studies, there should be a direct positive correlation between MALS and achievement scores.

Figure 7: Graph showing relationship between MALS and achievement scores among the rural students of the 25 schools

Interpretation of the graph

Figure-7 shows that there is a positive correlation between MALS and achievement among the students belonging to the rural districts. This indicates that irrespective of factors like poor infrastructure, teacher absenteeism, inaccessibility, etc, that the rural students have to overcome, when endowed with a positive academic self concept, they are able to overcome all odds to perform well in their achievement tests. This would contribute as a significant finding as ALM,   as a pedagogy that promotes self directed learning, tries to develop a positive academic self concept among the learners under the assumption that it would get transferred to their academic achievement.

Classroom processes:

1.   Typical period plan: 

         Introduction: In the classes observed, the most common mode of introduction exhibited by the teachers was declaring the name of the chapter and writing the same on the blackboard.

         Reading: Reading in the classroom happens after the teacher has finished her explanation.

         Mind Mapping:  Mind maps are developed by above average student in the groups, while others copy the same.  It has to be completed by the teacher.

2.   The time division in the classroom:

        The most important elements in an Active Learning namely self learning, mind mapping and peer to peer learning take up on an average, 35 minutes in most classes out of the allotted 90 minutes.

3. The pedagogical approaches used in the classrooms:

The pedagogical strategies used by the teachers in the observed classrooms from the 25 schools were:

§         Introduction followed by experimentation/ demonstration

§         Quiz- experimentation 

§         Dance/ song- introduction-explanation

§         PowerPoint presentation-explanation

§         Illustration (black board drawing/ charts) - followed by explanation

§         Introduction -  explanation 

4.   Methods used for assessing the absorption in the classroom:

         Questioning is the most common form of assessment observed in the classroom.

 

General findings of the study:

1.     No individual attention for the slow learners.

2.     Special reading and writing classes are necessary as remedial.

3.     More weight age for arts and crafts and music should be given.

4.     More weight age for sports should be given.

5.     More emphasis can be given on outreach programmers.

6.     More workbooks/worksheets can be used.   

7.     Reducing the amount of teacher talk.

8.     Arrangement of benches should be made for better peer interaction.

9.     Number of teaching aids must be increased.

10.   Much focus should be given for Inclusive Education. 

Suggestions:

1.           Physical setting should be changed for better peer interaction.

2.           Sufficient classroom should be provided to avoid over crowding in classrooms. 

3.           Student teacher ratio should be restricted to 1: 30.

4.           Initiatives could be taken to prevent student absenteeism.

5.           Extra allowance as incentive could be given to reduce teacher absenteeism in remote schools. 

6.           SSA meetings could be organized during week ends.

7.           Computer Literacy could be increased.

8.           Sports activities could be upgraded.

9.           Much emphasis could be given on art & craft.

10.         Teaching learning process could be improved with  experimentation,  demonstration etc. 

11.      Children could be motivated to use dictionary. 

12.      Apart from questioning, other assessment methods could    be encouraged. 

13.      Reading and Writing skills need to be upgraded.

14.      Rationalize and Streamline the syllabus for maximum ALM  effectiveness.

15.      The nature as well as the evaluation of the common final exams and the intended outcomes of ALM teaching – learning processes needs to be harmonized.

XXII

 

1.

Title of the Study

:

Evaluation of IED Programme in selected District of TamilNadu.

 

2.

Name & Address of Project Investigators

:

Dr. D. Thomas Alexander Principal and Secretary St. Xaviers College of Education Pallayam Kottai.

 

3.

Year of completion

:

January 2011

4.

Geographical Coverage

:

Tirunelveli, Tuticorin and Kanniyakumari

 

5.

Sample size

:

276 School Students, 359 parents, 153 special teachers, 208 Headmasters, 228 BRTEs and                13 Physiotherapists and 9 Day care givers.

 

6.

Methodology of the Research

:

Survey method

 

7.

Tools administered

:

Perception of IED Scale for students, parents, special teachers, BRTEs, Headmaster, Day Care Givers and Interview Schedule for physio therapists.

 

8.

Objectives of the Study

 

 

 1)     To evaluate the functioning of the IED Programme in Tirunelveli, Tuticorin and Kanniyakumari Districts. 

2)  To find out the level of perception of students, parents, special teachers, BRTEs, Head Masters, Day Care Givers and Physio therapists.

 

9.

Key findings of the study

:

 

 Findings of the Study:

I.       Perception of Students on IED programme

a.           66.9% of boys and 71.3% of girls have perceived that IED programme is useful. 

II.    Achievement of Students in IED Programme.

a.           91.0% of boys and 83.2% of girls under IED programme have got better academic achievement. 

III. PERCEPTION OF PARENTS IN IED PROGRAMME

a.           82.3% of fathers and 78.1% of mothers have perceived that the self-care training under IED programme for their wards is good. 

b.           83.5% of fathers and 77.7% of mothers have perceived that the transportation facility for the wards is good.  

c.            81.1% of fathers and 85.4% of mothers have perceived that the community oriented skills of their wards is good. 

d.           80.0% of fathers and 76.7% of mothers have perceived that the Academic skill of their wards is good. 

e.           75.3% of fathers and 83.2% of mothers have perceived that their wards have better skill of independent living with regard to day today activities. 

f.             71.8% of fathers and 77.3% of mothers have perceived that the administration of IED programme by officials are good.

IV. PERCEPTION OF SPECIAL TEACHERS  IN IED PROGRAMME

a.             75.9% of special teachers have perceived that their self-care training for the students is good.

b.             80.4% of special teachers have perceived that their transportation facility of the children is good.

c.              77.8% of special teachers have perceived that their training on the skill of cognitive is good.

d.             66.0% of special teachers have perceived that their training on the skill of academic is good.

e.           84.3% of special teachers have perceived that their training on the skill of community is good.

f.             56.2% of special teachers have perceived that the level of administration by the superiors is good.

V.      PERCEPTION OF BRTE’S ON IED PROGRAMME

a.          99.1% of BRTE’s have perceived that their planning for the IED programme is good.

b.            83.7% of BRTE’s have perceived that their organization of the IED programme is good.

c.             87.3% of BRTE’s have perceived that their training programme for special teachers is good.

d.            97.8% of BRTE’s have perceived that the participation of the special teachers in IED programme is good.

VI. PERCEPTION OF HEADMASTERS ON IED PROGRAMME

a.            80.3% of the Head Masters have perceived that the IED programme is good.

b.            85.3% of the Head Masters and 77.5% of Head Mistresses have perceived that the IED programme is good.

SUGGESTIONS

1.            Either separate transport facility or financial assistance for travel and bus pass to all the special children and to their parents should be provided so that the children from longer distance could reach the centre with the support of their parents.

 

2.            The centres should be spacious and airy and the floor must be covered with mats and bed sheets so that the children do not feel the cold weather.

 

3.            In the context of the workload, the monthly salary of the qualified special teachers could be enhanced and should be equally treated at par with other school teachers regarding service conditions and other benefits.

 

4.            Medical camp for rehabilitation of IED students must be conducted once in three months so that a sound follow-up is done regularly.

 

5.            Modern electronic gadgets could be used by special teachers for training the children in developing the communication skills.

 

6.            General medical care must be given periodically to IED children through general physicians at all centres.

CONCLUSION

The scheme of IED being the prime activity of SSA programme has done wonders to the welfare of the special children. A lot of growth is experienced in the thinking and behavioural pattern of the special children for which the role of parents and the officials of SSA are to be appreciated; at the same time it must be also remembered that the role and needs of the workers of the lower layer of IED programme and parents need to be identified and rewarded. When this is satisfied, certainly the scheme of IED will go a long way in the process of achieving equal opportunities for sustainable education for all in India.

 XXIII

 

1.

Title of the Study

:

Rethinking professional Issues towards inclusion

 

2.

Name & Address of Project Investigators

:

Dr. J.Sujatha Malini Assistant Professor, Alagappa University, Karaikudi

 

3.

Year of completion

:

January 2011

4.

Geographical Coverage

:

Dindigul, Madurai and Virudhunagar Districts

 

5.

Sample size

:

125 special teachers, 520 regular school students and 458 normal students studying in regular schools.

6.

Methodology of the Research

:

Survey Method

 

 

7.

Tools administered

:

Checklist, Questionnaire

 

8.

Objectives of the Study

 

 

 

a.        To assess the awareness of regular school teachers, special teachers towards inclusion of children with special needs. 

b.        To assess the attitude of regular school teachers, special teachers towards inclusion of children with special needs. 

c.         To assess the possessed and required competencies of regular school teachers and special teachers to handle children with special needs in inclusive educational set up. 

d.        To find out the significant difference if any, in the awareness of regular school teachers and special teachers towards children with special needs in inclusive education set up due to variation in their personal variables. 

e.        To find out the significant difference if any, in the attitude of regular school teachers and special teachers towards children with special needs in inclusive education set up due to variation in their personal variables. 

f.          To find out the significant difference if any, in the possessed and required competencies of regular school teachers and special teachers to handle children with special needs in inclusive education set up due to variation in their personal variables. 

g.        To assess the attitude of normal students towards inclusion of children with special needs. 

h.       To find out the significant difference if any, in the attitude of students towards children with special needs in inclusive education set up due to variation in their personal variables. 

To find out the relationship between the awareness, attitude, possessed and required competencies of regular school teachers and special teachers to handle children with special needs in inclusive education set up.

 9.

 Key findings of the study  :-

  

 

 

There is no difference between the regular and special teachers in their awareness, attitude, possessed and required competency. Only special teachers in Dindigul district possess high awareness on the concept inclusion. The moderate level of regular school teachers evinced in the study may be because of orientation and training given through SSA Programme. Moreover, they are also interacting with special teachers and almost they are serving for this type of children for the past five years under Integrated Education. So that may be the reason for their moderate level of performance. Further, in the present study the total number of sample of special teachers (127) is low when compared with regular school teachers (520). But, moderate level of awareness, attitude, possessed and required competencies of special teachers may be due to lack of job insecurity and lack of recognition which was evinced in the form of occupational stress when they interacted during the study. The result of the study has indicated that there is an immediate need for sensitisation and competency building programme for both the teachers for the successful implementation of inclusive education.

Qualitative analysis reveals that the both the teachers feel that it is a good practice to include children with disabilities in the regular classroom. But it is long process and one has to face lot of challenges. Regular teachers feel that they have to take up new responsibilities. Teachers feel that they don’t know what to do! They are not trained in inclusive practices.

Overall analysis showed that they feel that integrated education had brought out abilities of these children and therefore it is possible to implement inclusion for children with disabilities provided if there is a special educator in each school alongwith all the resource materials at school level.

 Implication of the Study  :-

Awareness programmes can be done using the existing print and electronic media.   Through pamphlets, wall-posters and advertising in local newspapers definitely facilitate not only the teachers but also the parents and local community. 

Subject experts and field specialists can be invited for frequent radio/television talks, which address the problems in disabled children’s education.

Video programming of a specialised school or institutional activities must be done and the same can be supplied to school libraries.

It is highly suggestible that the existing DIETs, College of Education, Department of Education/Special Education should organize short-term orientation classes for the teachers already working and incorporate disability concepts in teacher training, B.Ed and M.Ed Curriculum thereby, the prospective teachers will be highly proficient to handle inclusive classroom effectively.  

                                                                                                                                                                                               

XXIV

A critical Analysis on the functioning of computer Assisted Learning Centres (CALC)  (in Tirunelveli, Tuticorin and Kanyakumari Districts)

 

1.

Title of the Study

:

Impact of CAL on academic achievement and personality development of the Middle school students. 

 

2.

Name & Address of Project Investigators

:

Dr. P. Annaraja

Dean & Research Director,

St. Xavier’s College of Education,

Palayamkottai – 627 002.

 

3.

Year of completion

:

January 2011

 

4.

Geographical Coverage

:

Tirunelveli, Tuticorin and Kanyakumari Districts.

 

5.

Sample size

:

1558 middle school students attending CAL classes and 600 middle school students not attending CAL classes.

 

6.

Methodology of the Research

:

Survey method

 

7.

Tools administered

:

1. Attitude test for the students & teachers. 

2. Personality Development Scale. 

3. Achievement Test. 

 

 

 

 

8.           Objectives of the Study

1.  To find out the impact of CAL on the academic achievement of the middle school students.

 

2.  To find out the impact of CAL on personality development of middle              school students.

 

3.  To find out the awareness of CAL of the middle school students.

 

4.  To find out the awareness of CAL of the middle school teachers.

 

9.

Key findings of the study  :-

 

 

 Major findings

1.           There is significant difference between CAL and Non-CAL girls in their achievement in Tamil, English, Mathematics & Social Science.

 

2.           There is significant difference between CAL and Non-CAL rural school students in their academic achievement in Science.

 

3.         82.9% of the students attending CAL classes are expressing favourable attitude towards CAL.

 

4.           88% of teachers have favourable attitude towards CAL.

 

5.           CAL students (Boys & Girls) are better than Non-CAL students in all the dimensions of personality development.

 

   

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